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'The Hungarian Ruthenians are perhaps the most backward; they are for the most part very poor, living in log cabins without chimneys, and are inclined it is said, to drink to excess.'  Changes of land tenure introduced on the liberation of the serfs in 1848, by which cash payment was substituted for payment in kind, and common pastures and forest lands became the private property of the landlords, partly account for this impoverishment.'

Economically the Ruthene is hampered by generations of want and illiteracy. He is conservative in his customs and poverty-stricken, while three persons out of four above the age of six are illiterate.  Nevertheless, when removed to such a country as Canada, the Ruthene becomes a successful farmer.'



The above quotes are taken from a handbook  on 'Hungarian Ruthenia' published in 1920 by the British Foreign Office for the Paris Peace Conference.  The British Foreign Office defined  'Hungarian Ruthenia'  as comprising of   the counties of Máramaros, Ugocsa and Bereg.  The total number of emigrants during the period 1901-1910 from these counties was 29, 000 who were distributed as follows.

Nationalities   Ruthenes   Magyars     Germans    Romanians

                             49%              39%              9%               2%

 Emigration Destinations  Romania 4%       America 95%

Total population  of Máramaros, Bereg and Ugocsa counties per 1910 census was 686, 071. Around 90% of the population depended on agriculture for a livelihood and there were few other industries.  Medical services were limited. Illiteracy was rife. There were no no secondary schools in the Rusyn language. The natural increase in population of 'Hungarian Ruthenia'  in the decade 1901-1910  was around 13%.  Likewise there was a similar figure of 13.3% population increase in Ruthenian areas of Slovakia.  Net  emigration from the region  is estimated at 4.5%  in the decade 1901-1910.


Emigration Links

Note that genealogy sites such as Ancestry, FindMyPast and Geneanet have passenger list documentation for a fee.  FamilySearch also has a large amount of  shipping list information that is free.

Historical Passport site on Flickr (author: mákvirág)

Great collection of old passport photos.

Ellis Island: Comprehensive site for transcribed passenger lists  for migration to USA

Bremen Passenger Lists:   Bremen archives have made available a database of Passenger list information.  Bremen  was one of the major ports of embarkation for European emigrants to America.

National Australian Archives:   Passenger list information for World War II immigrants. Also has Naturalization records.  Note that to obtain records you must pay for the digitization of the record.

Note: For links to passenger lists for Australian states please refer to the Australian genealogy links pages.

OzShips passenger lists: An old site for passenger lists for migration to Australia. A little clunky to use. 

The Ships List: An old site. Passenger lists to Canada, USA and Australia

Boston Passenger Lists:   Free database Port of Boston passenger lists

Steve Morse one-Step pages:   An excellent search aid for searching passenger lists.  One technique is to use the gold form to search Ellis Island for  all immigrants from a particular village

Maritime Heritage Project:  Project to document maritime history of San Francisco port. Contains lots of good links.

American National Archives (NARA) databases for immigration:   Useful free  databases include Immigration of Germans to America 1850-1897 and Immigration of Russians to America 1834-1897.  Immigrants for Hungary, Transcarpathia and Slovakia can be found in these databases.

Canadian immigration records :   Canadian archives hold immigration records, Some of these are available in searchable databases..

Cemla Database of immigrant arrivals in Argentina: 

Immigration certificates Brazil

Cimorelli Immigration manifests on-line:   Online collection of databases comprised of the Morton Allan Directory, M1066 Microfilm series
from NARA, various newspaper articles, Internet sources, and personal contributions.

Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild: Transcriptions of various passenger lists by volunteers

Glenvik-Gjonvik shipping archives: 

Bad Arolsen Archives: Significant archive collection of victims of Nazi persecution. Post World War II,  many refugees spent time in displaced persons camps. Organizations such as the International Refugee Organization (IRO) organized  immigration. This can be a great resource particularly for  Australian genealogists.

British foreign Office Handbooks prepared for Paris Peace Conference 1919-1920. These handbooks give a succinct overview of history and economics of various regions. 

Transylvanian refugees to Hungary following 1921 Trianon Treaty This database lists Transylvanian refugees to Hungary as a consequence of the 1921 Trianon treaty border changes.

History of first German settlers to Obuda in 1698 This database lists Transylvanian refugees to Hungary as a consequence of the 1921 Trianon treaty border changes.

Hungarian emigrants of 1848-1849 in the Ottoman empire

Chapters on the Hungarian Political Emigration, 1849-1867: book review

Hungarian immigration in Australia: Essay

Hungarian immigrant communities in the US: Essay

Hungarian immigration in Australia: 22 biographies: Biographies of prominent Australians of Hungarian origin

Passports registered at Vienna: Family Search has a collection of passports registered in Vienna. These may contain passports from Hungary or Galicia. Unfortunately they have mot been transcribed

New Zealand Maritime Index. It is possible to search for names of people mentioned in publications. 

Coraweb shipping and migration links. A comprehensive list of links  pertaining to Australian geneology

WWII regugees to Australia. Passenger lists for refugees  of the International Refugee Organization Group Resettlement to Australia programme. Hosted by the Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild

Alien Registration files USA. National Archives Information page

Brazil Immigration certificate application  from Specialized Police Station for Foreigners (1939-1984). Use the certificate certidão links to search for and request copies of records. When you find a record and click on Ver Dados para Emitir Certidao or Solicitar Certidao, click on that to see who is listed in the record with or near them.

Brazil Immigrant Hostel records 1882-1958). 

Immigrant Ancestors Project. A Brigham Young University project to document Immigrants from UK, Germany, France, Spain, Holland, Italy and the Netherlands. There are some Eastern European immgrants that have been transcribed from the Bremen shipping lists.

South African passenger lists. The Genealogical Society of South Africa has transcribed some passenger lists .I

Mariners and Ships in Australian Waters.  Information on early shipping  records for Australian waters.

Passenger in History: South Austrlian shipping records.  Information from the South Australian archives

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